Occupational disease
An occupational disease is a disease or disorder that is caused by the work or working conditions.
This means that the disease must have developed due to exposures in the workplace and that the correlation between the exposures and the disease is well known in medical research. Or put in another way, it must not be likely, beyond reasonable doubt, that the disease was caused by factors other than work.
Examples of occupational diseases:
• Tennis elbow
• Allergy
• Hearing loss
• Asthma
Exposures in the workplace that may cause some of the above diseases:  
• Repetitive work movements
• Work with arms lifted above shoulder height
• Heavy lifting work
• Work in a very noisy environment
• Work with hazardous substances
When there is adequate medical documentation that a disease is caused by a certain exposure, the disease is included on the list of occupational diseases.

An occupational disease is typically identified when it is shown that it is more prevalent in a given body of workers than in the general population, or in other worker populations. The first such disease to be recognised, squamous-cell carcinoma of the scrotum, was identified in chimney sweep boys by Sir Percival Pott in 1775. Occupational hazards that are of a traumatic nature (such as falls by roofers) are not considered to be occupational diseases.
Under the law of workers' compensation in many jurisdictions, there is a presumption that specific disease are caused by the worker being in the work environment and the burden is on the employer or insurer to show that the disease came about from another cause. Diseases compensated by national workers compensation authorities are often termed occupational diseases. However, many countries do not offer compensations for certain diseases like musculoskeletal disorders caused by work (e.g. in Norway). Therefore the term work-related diseases are utilized to describe diseases of occupational origin. This term however would then include both compensable and non-compensable diseases that have occupational origins
Lung diseases
Main article: Occupational lung disease
Occupational lung diseases include asbestosis among asbestos miners and those who work with friable asbestos insulation, as well as black lung (coalworker's pneumoconiosis) among coal miners, silicosis among miners and quarrying and tunnel operators and byssinosis among workers in parts of the cotton textile industry.
Occupational asthma has a vast number of occupations at risk.
Bad indoor air quality may predispose for diseases in the lungs as well as in other parts of the body.

Skin diseases
Occupational skin diseases and conditions are generally caused by chemicals and having wet hands for long periods while at work. Eczema is by far the most common, but urticaria, sunburn and skin cancer are also of concern.[1]
High-risk occupations include:[1]
• Hairdressing
• Catering
• Healthcare
• Printing
• Metal machining
• Motor vehicle repair
• Construction
Other diseases of concern
• Overuse syndrome among persons who perform repetitive or forceful movements in constrictive postures
• Carpal tunnel syndrome among persons who work in the poultry industry and information technology
• Computer vision syndrome among persons using information technology for hours
• Lead poisoning affecting workers in many industries that processed or employed lead or lead compounds
Historical
Donald Hunter in his classic history of occupational diseases discusses many example of occupational diseases.[2] They include:
• Phossy jaw among the London matchgirls
• Radiation sickness among some persons who had been working in the nuclear industry
• Radium jaw among the Radium Girls
• Squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum among chimney sweeps (see Chimney sweeps' carcinoma)
Prevention
In order to better prevent and control occupational disease, most countries revise and update their related laws, most of them greatly increasing the penalties in case of breaches of the occupational disease laws. Occupational disease prevention, in general legally regulated, is part of good supply chain management and enables companies to design and ensure supply chain social compliance schemes as well as monitor their implementation to identify and prevent occupational disease hazards.